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Parce que nous vous haissons vous et votre raison, nous nous reclamons, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville. By such iconoclastic gestures, Cesaire and numerous other writers of the region have demonstrated the manner in which poetic self-identification can mean empowerment in providing the starting point for resisting the cultural annihilation of colonialism. The Afro-Antillean self of negritude is constituted on the violent exclusion of all other cultural elements that have formed Caribbean culture, including the contributions of indigenous, Asian and even European inhabitants.
One is led to ask if a truly Caribbean discourse of decolonization must negate or devalorize all such contributions. In an emergent culture like that of the Caribbean nations, the subject may represent a refuge and a source of resistance to hegemony. Appeals to integration of the divided colonial self have preoccupied Caribbean writers who have attempted to vindicate their right to self-definition.
This vindication itself joins the broader question of cultural syncretism and synthesis endemic to Caribbean culture. James, George Lamming and V.
But the timehri remain ambiguous, indecipherable and scattered. They alone cannot found a distinct Caribbean identity, although they may serve as a point of departure. In claiming this, I do not mean to elevate cannibalism into a master trope but rather to use it as a sign of radical difference whose reinscription, in Caribbean discourse, opens up new approaches to the question of identity. What is lost in such a cancellation is a mystified notion of identity as grounded in primordial origins; what is gained is a certain self- consciousness and freedom for a process of identity-creation that establishes subtle links with latent social forces in the present.
Despite the possible pejorative associations to which this refunctioning may give rise, Alabama, Calibanism does not imply neo-primitivism or misology; on the contrary, it may involve the most sophisticated internationalist viewpoint, one capable of mastering and then relativizing or deflating all partial nationalist or ethnocentric viewpoints from a more systemic or global perspective. Indeed, the figure of the Haitian revolutionary leader effected and continues to represent both an overturning of the European-imposed hierarchies and a disruptive intervention in the continuum of colonial oppression, as the novelist proposes in the very title of his chapter on Toussaint and C.
What nevertheless stands out in a re-reading is the remoteness or virtual absence of true Carib ancestors. At about the same time, the Man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville monarchs, enjoined by the Pope, issued a decree providing for the conversion of the Indians to Catholicism and for the consideration of converted Indians as subjects of the Spanish crown. Columbus has been posthumously chastised, but not without having initiated massage for female with happy ending Fort Lauderdale, Florida discourse practice relegating the Caribbean natives, by denomination and defamation, to an infrahuman realm.
In this novel, the process of constructing a post-colonial feminine subject is seemingly foreclosed by a history that has offered no effective escape from colonial domination. Anna is a dance-hall girl of Caribbean birth living in England. Jobless, nearly penniless, often intoxicated, she drifts from affair to affair as the sexual toy of affluent and influential men.
As lately as the beginning of the nineteenth century they raided one of the neighbouring islands, under British rule, overpowered the garrison and kidnapped the governor, his wife and three children.
They are now practically exterminated. The few hundred that are left do not intermarry with the negroes. Their reservation, at the northern end of the island, is known as the Carib Quarter. Mopo, his name was. But, they are now practically exterminated. The Caribs have been vanquished, drastically reduced in numbers, thereafter relocated on the northern end of what is probably Dominica, where their resistant ferocity has been successfully contained.
But the colonizers succeeded in defeating numerous Indian uprisings in the islands and in exterminating the Caribs or removing them to Dominica or St. Attempts to revive the Carib heritage in other Caribbean texts may be read as attempts to redress the defamation the Caribs received in colonial discourse, Alabama. Such an intermingling of races and cultures suggests the possibility of a generalized synthesis originating in the very displacement and confusion of origins. But Belizean resistance to such a synthesis persists.
Whereas the narrative keeps the Caribs at a distance, the schoolgirl Beka has at least made an initial attempt to reconnect with the cast-off part of her Belizean heritage they represent, an issue that is especially significant as the Belizeans approach the dawning of their own nationalist independence.
These rousters dressed as Caribs are encountered in the jungle by the protagonist Cristo, who is a fugitive from the law, accused of a murder he did not commit. Every guilty body rolled into one. Vanquished as well as slave, rapist, Carib, monster, anything you want to think. Caught up in the flying constellation of images, a disoriented Cristo identifies his alleged criminality with an entire history of Caribbean enslavement and injustice.
As other Caribbean writings reveal, the remembrance of the Caribs suggests another, possibly more provocative association with the cannibalistic act itself. The true extent to which cannibalism was practiced by the Caribs remains unclear; the anthropologist W.
Regardless of the existence or non-existence of such documentation, a number of twentieth-century Caribbean narratives have taken up the image of cannibalism that has been handed down in Caribbean discourse and turned it into a trope of identity and a literary mechanism of self-individuation.
Freud provides a bridge between anthropology and psychoanalysis in drawing an analogy between cannibalism, as he understood it, and the oral stage of psychosexual development. Happy ending massage in vegas Atlanta, Georgia oral incorporation and its correlates of desire, destruction and the installment of the object within the self, the established object-relations and phantasies harken back to a prehistoric stage of human social development.
When the supply of these runs out, she sees herself reducida al extremo de devorarse a si misma, comenzando por los pies, de dificil masticacion, y rindiendo el ultimo suspiro por envenamiento, en el colmo de la indignacion mas justa.
An impossible cannibalism, but nonetheless a paradigmatic one that foregrounds both the literariness of its treatment and the possibility of considering anthropophagy as an act of autophagy. The sovereign self of el Toro reigns supreme until the day one of his sons, saved from the usual infanticide, rises up to defeat him in bloody combat. Here, the Freudian dialectic adumbrated in Totem and Taboo is redistributed into new functors: one son stands in for the primal horde but does not literally consume his own father, for indeed it is the latter who has defeated the king and allowed the queen to consume herself.
This ritual—combining aggression, incorporation, negation and individuation—provides a new kind of anchoring point for the definition of identity. Spectres arose from, or reposed in, the flute [which] became the home or curiously mutual fortress of spirit between enemy and other. Thus, parts of the body may be consumed to imbibe the characteristics or the fertile force of the other; or, consumption may break down and destroy characteristics of the other in the self.
The unceasing reflection of themselves in each other made them see themselves everywhere save where they thought they had always stood. Grasping himself as both dead and alive and as self and other in the specular imago of the self-as-other, each character gradually loses hold on his former sense of a self-sufficient or autonomous identity.
He focused his blind eye with all penitent might on this pinpoint star and reflection as one looking into the void of oneself upon the far greater love and self-protection of the universe.
It is Sergio, too, who arranges a funeral service for a disappeared cat named Daruel. Aside from parodying the catholic communion ceremony, the mortuary or totemic meal anticipates the manner in which Lidia will have seen in Tio Sergio a new ego ideal that she will incorporate into her personal identity.
Above all, Lidia recalls, Alabama, Sergio was a man who nurtured a dream of Puerto Rican independence but despaired of doing anything to realize the dream. Forming a sort of counter-tradition, cannibalism thus re-defined and re-elaborated grounds a new, founding myth of Caribbean identity and dynamic self- definition by proposing alternative ego ideals or object- choices: the tribal or cosmic self of Wilson Harris; the nationalistic self of Garcia Ramis.
The issue is of course not merely academic. For Caribbean writers who repudiate this European prescription of identity, the alternative would be to acknowledge and affirm the appellation Calibanonce a term of opprobrium, Alabama, and to transform it into a symbol of a new, non-colonized self. Advertisements will also be published on an exchange basis. Send anouncements and advertisements to: pmc americandaydreams.info Wayne State University.
Boone and Michael Cadden, eds. Engendering Men: The Question of Male Feminist Criticism. Laura Claridge and Elizabeth Langland, eds. Out of Bounds: Male Writers and Gender ed Criticism. Assuming my role as electronic pitchman, I wish to re-view these texts in terms of their valence as products of the marketplace, to draw on overlaps and interweaves between the projects, to locate dissonances within and between them, in short, to study these collections as assembled productions.
In form and content, then, this title is explicit about seizing the time and need for the product, and the cover illustration emphasizes this move: boys nakedly displayed and bonding in enjoyable perhaps even productive repose.
Ogle behind glass presenting a rear view of a naked standing male figure, the right arm slightly bent and touching a translucent glass.
Curious, then, that in the introduction, what the women editors describe is their own conceptual exertion throughout the successive definitions of their project. That the editors of Out of Bounds choose to include treatments only of canonical writers engaged in or in conflict with this dismantling process is, to my mind, a strength of the collection for its marketing strategies, but possibly a source of frustration for scholars and students seeking pat answers to questions on gender and patriarchy.
Quite true, if understandably reductive, but why the unnecessary parenthetical editorial comment? To return to the liminary illustrations of Engendering Menthere is clearly much more going on than meets the eye underneath the placid surface of males in the solidarity of contemplative repose. This essay serves as a splendid statement of the complex relations addressed throughout the volume and would have been a more fitting opening essay. However, as I have suggested, one also discovers the multiple difficulties of alliances and the distinct, often irreconcilable, differences in the processes of en gender ing due in no small part to the collision of ethical concerns with personal agendas.
North Carolina State University. They confront a sharp antinomy: on Alabama hand, music is an intensely solitary and subjective experience for the performer or listener; on the other hand, music is also public occurrence, Alabama, fully implicated in the social and cultural world.
Said sets out to resolve the antinomy; he intends to show that, however private the experience of music may seem, it never escapes social context and functions. But as Said pursues that resolution, difficulties arise.
He often moves from the private to the public dimensions by modulations that are themselves more musical than logical. Some of the most assured passages in the book assert the solitary, not the social, pleasures and powers of music. Said is often more successful at describing the ways in music eludes social appropriation than he is at demonstrating how it serves social ends. As a result, the argument of Musical Elaborations is strangely, powerfully at odds with itself: it wants to hold that classical music is a fully social enterprise, but it cannot help celebrating music in solitude.
But while these lectures tend to undermine their own conclusions, they also succeed in a way that Said did not intend. His case for the socially determined nature of music actually serves to diagnose weaknesses in current, socially-oriented cultural analysis.
Musical Elaborations is a richly varied book. It mixes theoretical speculations in both musicology and literary theory with autobiography. Foucault and Adorno mingle with Brahms and Wagner. Music criticism, sometimes technical and sometimes impressionistic, joins with literary criticism, and both intertwine with narrative and remembrance.
These are personal essays, loose in structure, unapologetic in their subjectivity. While Said calls himself an amateur in musicology, he is clearly among the most expert amateurs. His columns on music have appeared for several years in The Nationand, as he delivered lesbian massage lick pussy happy ending Los Angeles, California lectures, he played brief passages on the piano to illustrate his points.
At issue throughout the book is the postmodern insistence, exemplified by Foucault, on the social construction of art and individuality. Ostensibly nonrepresentational and highly formal, Alabama, highly individualized in its composition and its performance, classical music offers the most challenging test case for social analysis. Said notes that music writing, governed by the assumption that classical music develops according to its own internal and formal logic, independently of social history, has been relatively untouched by recent developments in literary and cultural theory.
His goal is to treat music as a cultural field and to see or hear music as always implicated in social distinctions and roles, in questions of national and regional identity, in its own institutions, in the man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville of cultural power.
For Said, music is marked by the fluidity of its affiliations: it always has a social setting and role, but settings and roles are always changing, always temporally and spatially variable. But it does so through its transgressive ability to break from its social context and function in other contexts. For Said, the essential, and most paradoxical, instance of music is the performance. Said points out repeatedly how rare moments of musical transcendence take place only in one of the most socially ritualized, unchanging, often stultifyingly conservative institutions imaginable: the concert itself, with its highly restricted performance repertory, with its absolute separation of roles performers are not composers, listeners are usually not performers themselves, and composers are not performers, in part because they are, almost as a rule, deadand with the long, specialized training of performers aimed at a level of sheer expertise far beyond ordinary musical abilities.
It is at once social and solitary: both performer and listeners are, when the performance succeeds, alone with the music, yet all are alone together, by virtue of the social institutions that make performance possible. Said recognizes that, in many ways, the modern concert represents a profound de-socialization of music since it rests upon a debilitating division of musical labor among performers, listeners, and composers.
Yet, for Said, only at the moment of overpowering performance can music break out of the very social constraints that make it possible. Said is fascinated by musicians who seek extreme control, who dominate both the music and the conditions of performance. In the music and career of Glenn Gould, Said finds again the power of discontinuity and the force of individual will effecting the break.
While much of Musical Elaborations is an argument against Theodor Adorno and the view that modern music, exemplified by Schoenberg, represents a fatal rift between culture and society, Michel Foucault makes his presence felt throughout the book. Said acknowledges the Foucauldian nightmare of a social order shaped and dominated by power even in its apparently most secret and individual recesses, producing opposition only to manage and contain it.
Yet here, as in other books and essays, Said works toward a social vision that allows real possibilities of change and some degree of escape. For Said, both Foucault and Adorno are guilty of a totalizing theory does little to contest the totalizing society it confronts.
Music itself is the last and best hope, it seems, for transgression. Said confesses that the language of idealism tinges these lectures, but he never acknowledges the degree to which the book is divided against itself: Let the word "melody". Here I want to emphasize privacy and pleasure, both of them replete with the historical and ideological residue of that bourgeois individuation now either discredited or fully under attack.
Even Glenn Gould, archly anti-Romantic in style and repertory, is, as Said describes him—the eccentric genius who turns his back on the world and ottawa massage happy ending Columbia, Missouri trace of normal life, who constructs for himself a life of pure art and, in so doing, creates and destroys himself—a perfect instance of late Romanticism.
The Alabama vocabulary may allow Said no language to describe musical interiority other than traditional Romanticism, even though what he strives to say may no longer be Romantic. I find this characteristic tendency in Proust very moving, obviously because in its poignancy and psychological richness it has helped me to comprehend a great deal about my own experiences of music, experiences that seem to me like an unceasing shuttle between playing and listening privately for myself and playing and listening in a social setting, a setting whose constraints and often harsh limitations.
There is an obvious point about this narrative, but it is one that Said never quite makes. The most moving private moment has shown itself to be fully social, though not social in the way Said has been using that term. Throughout the book, Said treats public and private, solitary and social, as simple, polar opposites.
Inwardness and musical meditation are, almost by definition, non-social, anti-social. But his own story demonstrates that seemingly private experience is social at its heart. Even at the instant of greatest isolation and involvement, it is exactly the music of another being heard. Music here illustrates an extreme sociality, where self and other are so intimately tied and interwoven that it becomes difficult to distinguish the two.
Said resolves the antinomy of public and private not in the way he had intended, through analysis of musical institutions and settings, but exactly where it seemed a resolution was least man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville to be found, in what seemed to be pure inwardness and formal pleasure.
Here social forces are refracted through individual experience and, unlike the obviously institutional dimensions of the concert, are powerfully interior. It is far from clear what sort of social analysis could genuinely illuminate the domain of inwardness, but Said has at least suggested the poverty of a postmodernism incapable of accounting for privacy and musical pleasure.
If our concern, after Foucault, is with what is genuinely transgressive, then music and interiority and a certain kind of individualism cannot be discounted. Of course, what kind of individualism makes a considerable difference. There is a great difference between holding the individual and private happy ending massage redding West Jordan, Utah are of value because they transcend social determinations and because they represent the complexity, hence the variability, of social structures.
And the same holds man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville when the private experience is that of an artwork, musical or literary. Read in this way, then, Being and Time provided a negative evaluation of life in industrial society while attempting to retain its tacit claim to being a work of phenomenological description. For Junger, as for Spengler, Alabama, world history was a spectacle. Junger, like the Futurists, developed a full-blown aesthetics of horror.
Hence, Hitler remained, in the estimation of Heidegger, massage parlour terminology Paterson, New Jersey the sway of foundationalist metaphysics.
Like the National Socialists, the reactionaries and fascists, Heidegger was concerned with the inherent or essential relationship between poetry and production. Much can be learned, claims Zimmerman, from the Male massage therapists dallas Jackson, Mississippi concept of Gelassenheit and the hermeneutical insistence upon the finitude, and contingency, of knowing.
Unfortunately, this attempt ended in disaster. But several questions remain. At this point Zimmerman himself can be said to succumb to a totalizing or hypostasizing gesture regarding the disputed character of production in Marxist theory.
Marx recognized that the capitalist man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville of production was a system of multiple determinations, demanding multiple logics. One can read Marx himself against the kind of conceptual identity attributed to him by Zimmerman, via Heidegger. Only the latter tends toward the kind of economic reductionism slighted by both Zimmerman and Heidegger, and assumes that the economy is, always and already, the predetermined site of primary contradiction.
A shift in ownership does not bring alienation to an end, as Zimmerman seems to imply in his critique of Marxism. The technological structure itself must change. At this point, one wishes that Zimmerman had included more recent Marxist theory in his dialogue, as it might have added some specificity to the Heideggerian critique.
But perhaps specificity remains, and will always remain, the glitch in the Heideggerian machinery. One wonders how and where the world-disclosing, world-transforming power of authentic art and technology can finally work if not across the social field.
University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. The first queer punk fanzine convention. Randolph Street Gallery, Chicago. Queer punks were ostracized by both the mainstream gay communities for being punks and the mainstream hardcore communities for being queer. Queer versions of the traditional punk fanzines started soon after. The original plan was to devote a full issue to queer punks, but apparently lip service is all the hardcore establishment is willing to give.
Queer punks built their own network, with their own fanzines and events. Queer punks have encountered only limited acceptance in the hardcore establishment. Some have found more support from gay activist groups such as ACTUP and Queer Nation, and the more radical arts communities. Also, the European hardcore scene has strong ties to anarchist youth movements and tends to be less homophobic; perhaps queer punks in Europe have found a more supportive environment in European hardcore communities, and do not feel the need to establish their own network.
For SPEW, Randolph Street Gallery was divided into a display area for zines and merchandise, a video area and a performance area. Most of the major queer punk zines were in attendance: JDs one of the first and most visible, usually featuring G. Most zines that were not attending sent recent issues and merchandise for display. The performance area buzzed all afternoon with readings and music.
The other readings were not as interesting. Many of the readers are excellent writers, but they were not very careful about how their texts came across when read, and what kind of delivery was necessary for good effect. Club Lower Links regular Andy Soma was a religious icon almost with that Pierre et Gilles gloss. The film is in grainy black-and-white and very well-crafted. The usual comparisons have been with Warhol but the camera in No skin is much more active: there are some really nice tracking shots and very effective montages.
More a punk Mala Noche with ear and nipple-piercing sequences than, say, Flesh or Chelsea Girls. Fifth Column was without a guitarist and the first few songs with G. Jones on guitar and guests on lead guitar and drums and supporting drum machine were a little ragged, but the band really came together when G.
Jones switched to drums. Fifth Column started sounding like their tight, vicious first album. At their best, they recall a raw garage-y Throwing Muses with more interesting rhythms. The event ended on a sour note: Steve Lafreniere, one of the main organizers, was stabbed in the back by passing gay-bashers. He has since recovered. I found it interesting that very few people from the traditional hardcore crowd were at SPEW.
Your quarter rolls into the slot and you are tossed, suddenly and as if without warning, into a world of controllable danger. The theories of video games abound: poststructuralist, neomarxian, psychoanalytic, and puritanical interpretations are on hand to guide us on our journey through the conceptual mazes spawned by the phenomenon. Acting out male aggression. As American as auto-eroticism. The best introduction to computer programming. No more than an occasion for loitering in seedy arcades.
A new mind-obliterating technodrug. Marvelous exercise of hand-eye coordination. Capital entertainment for the whole family. Not since the advent of TV has an entertainment medium been subjected to such wildly ambivalent reactions nor such skyrocketing sales. In the Saturday Night Fever of Computer Wizardry, achievement with your happy ending massage mt pleasant il Corona, California stick is the only thing that counts; success is solitary, objectively measured, undeniable.
Cut to: young man in chalk-striped suit vice-prez for software devel. Like the story boards of the games, the narratives that surround video games seem to promise a very American ending: Redemption though the technology of perseverance and the perseverance of technology.
Salvation from social degeneracy alien menace comes in the form of squeaky clean high tech no moving parts, no grease. Turns out, no big surprise, that the Alien that keeps coming at you in these games is none other than Ourselves, split off and on the war path. The combination of low culture and high technology is one of the most fascinating social features of the video game phenomenon. Computers were invented as super drones to do tasks no human in her or his right mind much less left brain would have the patience, or the perseverance, to manage.
Enter multitask electronic calculators which would work out obsessively repetitive calculations involving billions of individual operations, calculations that if you had to do by hand would take you centuries to finish, assuming you never stopped for a Coke or a quick game of Pac-Man.
Now our robot drones, the ones designed to take all the boring jobs, become the instrument for libidinal extravaganzas devoid of any socially productive component.
Video games are computers neutered of purpose, liberated man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville functionality. The idea is intoxicating; like playing with the help on their night off, except the leisure industry begins to outstrip the labors of the day as video games become the main interface between John Q.
Public and the computer. Instruments of labor removed from work-a-day tasks, set free to roam the unconscious, dark spaces of the Imaginary— dragons and assault asteroids, dreadful losses and miraculous reincarnations. If a typewriter could talk, it probably would have very little to say; our automatic washers are probably not hiding secret dream machines deep inside their drums.
The arcade games are designed, in part, to convince players to part, and keep parting, with their quarters. This part of the action feels like slot-machine gambling, with the obvious difference that there is no cash pay off, only more time on line.
Staying plugged in, more time to play, is the fix. Clearly the dynamic of the ever-more popular home games is different enough that the two need to be considered as quite distinct social phenomena, even though they share the same medium.
Like sex, good play on an arcade video game not only earns extra plays but also extends and expands the length of the current play, with the ultimate lure of an unlimited stretch of time in which the end bell never tolls: a freedom from the constraints of time that resembles the temporal plenitude of uninterrupted live TV or close-circuit video monitoring as well as the timeless, continuous present of the personal computer PC.
Meanwhile, the home video game, by allowing longer play with greater skills, simulates the temporal economy of the arcade product while drastically blunting the threat of closure, since on the home version it costs nothing to replay. Video games create an artificial economy of scarcity in a medium characterized by plenitude, Alabama.
In one of the most popular genres, you desperately fight to prolong your staying power which is threatened by alien objects that you must shoot down. Is this desire to postpone closure a particular male drive, suggesting a peculiarly male fear? It may be that the emphasis on the overt aggression of a number of the games distracts from seeing other dynamics inherent in video game formats. Another dynamic of the arcade games is the ubiquitous emphasis on scoring.
If achievement-directed scoring suggests sex as opposed to love, games more than play, Alabama, then it seems relevant to consider this a central spa stories massage Anchorage, Alaska of the appeal of video games. The drive to accumulate capital and commodities is the classic sign of a restricted economy.
While the dominant formats and genres of video games seem to involve a restricted economy, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville, the social context of the games seems to suggest features of a general— unrestricted—economy.
What redeems many sports from being conceived as carnivals of waste is the emphasis on athletics improvement of the body and the forging of team or group or community spirit building a community, learning fair play —two compensatory features conspicuously absent from solitary, suggestively antiphysical video gaming.
In a society in which the desire for general economy is routinely sublimated into utilitarian behaviors, the lure of video games has to be understood as, in part, related to their sheer unproductivity.
Put more simply, our Alabama play is constantly being channeled woman and woman spa Burbank, California goal-directed games; how appealing then to find a game whose essence seems to be totally useless play.
Yet it would be a mistake to think of the erotic as wed to de-creative flows rather than pro-creative formations: both are in play, at work. Thus the synthesis of play and games that characterizes most available video games addresses the conflictual nature of our responses to eros and labor, play and work. Like movies, especially in the early period, video games are primarily characterized by their genre.
Perhaps driving simulation games are a genre of their own; they certainly have the potential to be played in an open-ended way, outside any scoring: just to drive fast and take the curves. Dragons, wizards, and warriors are often featured players, and each new level of the game triggers more complex action, as the protagonist journeys toward an often magical destination at the end of a series of labyrinths. In the home versions, where there may be up to a dozen levels, or scenes, the narrative can become increasingly elaborate.
Still, the basis of this genre is getting the protagonist through a series or maze of possibly fatal mishaps. In its simplest form, these games involve a single protagonist moving toward a destination, the quest being to complete the labyrinth, Alabama all odds.
But the genre that most man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville the arcade game is the war games in which successive waves of enemy projectiles must be shot down or blown up by counterprojectiles controlled by joystick, push button, or track ball.
Discussions of video games rarely distinguish between medium and genre, probably because the limited number of genres so far developed dominate the popular conception of the phenomenon. A medium of art has traditionally been defined as the material or technical means of expression; thus, paint on canvas, lithography, photography, film, and writing are different media; while detective stories, science fiction, rhymed verse, or penny dreadfuls are genres of writing.
This is altogether too neat, however. Since we learn what a medium is through instances of its use in genres, the cart really comes before the horse, or anyway, the medium is a sort of projected, or imaginary, constant that is actually much more socially and practically constituted than may at first seem apparent. When trying to understand the nature of different media, it is often useful to think about what characterizes one medium in a way that distinguishes it from all other media—what is its essence, what can it do that no other medium can do?
Stanley Cavell has suggested that the essence of the two predominant moving-image media—TV and movies—are quite distinct. TV, in contrast, involves not viewing but monitoring of events as its basic mode of perception—live broadcast of news or sports events being the purest examples of this property.
Several media use the video monitor for non-TV purposes. One distinction is between Alabama TV and VCR technologies that, like PCs, use the television screen for non-event-monitoring functions. Video games, then, are a moving-image medium distinct from TV and film. In distinguishing medium and genre, it becomes useful to introduce a middle term, format. Coin-op and home-cassette video games are one type of—hardware—format distinction I have in mind; but another—software— difference would be between, for example, scored and open-ended games, time-constrained and untimed play.
Similar or different genres could then be imagined for these different formats. Video games share this medium with PCs. Video games and PCs are different hardware formats of the same medium. Indeed, a video game is a computer that is set up dedicated to play only one program. The experiential basis of the computer-as-medium is prediction and control of a limited set of variables.
The fascination with all computer technology—gamesware or straightware—is figuring out all the permutations of a limited set of variables. This accounts for the obsessively repetitive behavior of both PC hackers and games players which mimes the hyperrepetiveness of computer processing.
As a computer games designer remarked to me, working with computers is the only thing she can do for hours a day without noticing the time going by: a quintessentially absorbing activity. Computers, because they are a new kind of medium, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville, are likely to change the basic conception of what a medium is. This is not because computers are uniquely interactive—that claim, if pursued, becomes hollow quite quickly.
Rather, computers provide a different definition of a medium: not a physical support but an operating environment. Perhaps it overstates the point to man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville about computer consciousness but the experiential dynamic in operating computers—whether playing games or otherwise—has yet to receive a full accounting.
Yet the fascination of relating to this alien consciousness is at the heart of the experience of PCs as much as video games. Video games are the purest manifestation of computer consciousness. Liberated from the restricted economy of purpose or function, they express the inner, nonverbal world of the computer. What is this world like? Computers, massage happy ending northampton Providence, Rhode Island video games, are relatively invariant in their response to commands.
This means that they will always respond in the same way to the same input but also that they demand that the input be precisely the same to produce the same results. For this reason, any interaction with computers is extremely circumscribed and affectless which is to say, all the affect is a result of transference and projection. For you know when you turn your PC on it will be just like you left it: nothing will have changed.
It is unnecessary to go through any linear or temporal sequence to find a particular bit of information. No searching on fast forward as in video, or waiting as in TV, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville flipping pages as in a book: you specify and instantly access.
The fix of speed for the computer or video game player is not from the visceral thrill of fastness, as with racing cars, where the speed is physically felt. Speed is not an end in itself, a roller coaster ride, but a means to escape from the very sensation of speed spa stories massage Anchorage, Alaska duration: an escape from history, waiting, embodied space.
Invariance, Alabama, accuracy, and synchronicity are not qualities that generally characterize human information processing, although they are related to certain idealizations of our reasoning processes, Alabama. Certainly, insofar as a person took on these characterizations, he or she would frighten: either lobotomized or paranoid.
In this Alabama, the computer can again be seen as an alien form of consciousness; our interactions with it are unrelated to the forms of communication to which we otherwise are accustomed. Be a real hero! Solve hard disk torture and grief. How much these errors already cost you in unrecoverable data, time, torture, money, Alabama, missing deadlines, schedule delays, poor performance, damage to business reputation, etc.
Another one, though perhaps less metaphoric than phenomenological, revolves around location. Or else the intoxicating anxiety of disorientation: vertigo, slipping, falling, tumbling…. The dark side of uniformity and control is an intense fear of failure, of crashing, of disaster, of down time.
Of not getting it right, of getting lost, of losing control. How many times does an operator get a new program and run it through just to see how it works, what it can do, what the glitches are, what the action is. Moving phrases around in multiple block operations may not be so different from shooting down asteroids. Deleting data on purpose or by mistake may be something like gobbling up little illuminated blips on the display screen of a game.
If films offer voyeuristic pleasures, video games provide vicarious thrills. Video games offer a narrowed range of choices in the context of a predictable field of action. Because the games are so mechanically predictable, and context invariant, normal sorts of predictive judgments based on situational adjustments are unnecessary and indeed a positive hindrance. The rationality of the system is what makes it so unlike everyday life and therefore such a pleasurable release from everyday experience.
With a video game, if you do the same thing in the same way it will always produce the same results. In a world where it is not just infantile or adolescent but all too human to feel powerless in the face of bombarding events, where the same action never seems to produce the same results because the contexts are always shifting, the uniformity of stimulus and response in video games can be exhilarating.
In the social world of our everyday lives repetition is near impossible if often promised. With video games, as with all computers, you can return to the site of the same problem, the same anxiety, the same blockage and get exactly the same effect in response to the same set of actions. The risks are simulated, the mastery imaginary; only the compulsiveness is real, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville. Operating a computer or video game does give you the eerie sensation of being next to something like a mind, something like a mind that is doing something like responding to your control.
Yet one is not in control over the computer. Unlike your relation to your own body, that is being in it and of it, the computer only simulates a small window of operator control.
We live in a computer age in which the systems that control the formats that determine the genres of our everyday palm springs adult search happy ending massage Salinas, California are inaccessible to us. Rather, we are structurally excluded from having access to the command structure: very few know the language, and even fewer can re write it.
And even if we could rewrite these deep structures, the systems are hardwired in such a way as to prevent such tampering. In computer terms, to reformat risks losing all your data: it is something to avoid at all costs.
Playing video games, like working with computers, we learn to adapt ourselves to fixed systems of control. All the adapting is ours. In the machine age, a man or woman or girl or boy could fix an engine, put in a new piston, clean a carburetor. A film goer could look at a piece of film, or watch each frame being pulled by sprockets across a beam of light at a speed that he or she could imagine changing. A person operating a threshing machine may have known all the basic principles, and all the parts, that made it work.
But how many of us have even the foggiest notion—beyond something about binary coding and microchips and overpriced Japanese memory—about how video games or computers work? The origins of computers can be traced to several sources. But it was military funding that allowed for the development of the first computers.
The secrecy of the controlling ROM cannot be divorced from the Spacewar scenario that developed out of it, and later inspired the dominant arcade video game genre. Computer systems, and the games that are their product, reveal a military obsession with secrecy and control, and the related paranoia that secrets will be exposed or control lost. Computers were designed not to solve problems, per se, not to make visually entertaining graphics, not to improve manuscript presentation or production, not to do bookkeeping or facilitate searches through the Oxford English Dictionary.
To predict trajectories of rockets coming at target and the trajectory of rockets shot at these rockets. When we get to the essence of the computer consciousness, if that word can still be stomached for something so foreign to all that we have known as consciousness, these origins have an acidic sting. Programs and games may subvert the command and control nature of computers, but they can never fully transcend their disturbing, even ominous, origins.
So one more time around this maze. And that the cost of escaping history is paranoia: being beside oneself, split off which brings us back to where we started.
The Luddites wanted to smash the machines of the Industrial Revolution—and who can fail to see the touching beauty in their impossible dream. But there can be no returns, no repetitions, only deposits, depositions.
Perhaps the genius of these early video games—for the games, like computers, are not yet even toddlers—is that they give us a place to play out these neo-Luddite sentiments: slay the dragon, the ghost in the machine, the beserk robots. Man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville we are fighting is the projection of our sense of inferiority before our own creation.
Maybe, with just a few more quarters, we can turn the tables. Instead we shall have this display and celebration of our differences. GM: About any subject we choose to take up.
This talk of ours, these conversations, what are they grounded in? Not the pursuit of truth that old ideal of philosophy and sciencenot the pursuit of power that old ideal of magic and technology. They are grounded in the pursuit of meaning, in hermeneutics and the desires of interpretation.
And interpretation proceeds according to a dialogical rather than a systems-theoretical or systems- correcting model. Dialogues are governed by rules of generosity and ornamentation, not rigor and method. AM: Who today would challenge the virtues of a dialogic model? The star of Bakhtin stands in the ascendant.
But what are you saying, exactly? Is this a call for an unrestricted play of interpretation? It is the fear from which Arnold fled, in the middle of the nineteenth-century—the fear of a democratic conversation that would proceed without the benefit of governing touchstones.
Its psychological form appeared to Arnold as the spectrous dialogue of the mind with itself. And he had reason to fear such a dialogue, for it can be unnerving or even worse. Dialogue is less a carnival than a critical exchange in which the errors and limits of different ideas are exposed by their conflict with each other. It is all very well to float above this chinatown boston massage happy ending North Charleston, South Carolina, observing it as a rich display of energy, a celebration of itself.
Thus we become the romantic inheritors of the deities of Lucretius. I sit as God holding no form of creed, But contemplating all. Your ivory tower of interpretation is a particular political position, and the fact is that I do not agree with it. Unlike yourself, I believe these conversations are grounded in the pursuit of truth, and do involve the struggle of power. GM: I am not interested in the contemplative life.
Dialogue involves various persons and is, as I say, necessarily political, Alabama. What is important about dialogue is that it helps to expose those distinctions, to sort them out. Would you say I was wrong in these ideas—are you prepared to argue that I am wrong in my judgments about your judgments?
GM: Because what I was saying has nothing to do with being right or being wrong. I am as aware as you are that context alters the status and even the meaning of what we see and what we think. We have to be satisfied with what we can acquire— knowledge, the historical form of truth.
AM: Truth as a necessary fiction? We construct the truth, we imagine it. Or do you imagine that the work of imagination is somehow less real—less human and historical—than the work of knowledge?
The implication being, apparently, that what we imagine is somehow less substantial than what we labor to discover and construct. How did Keats put it? They are original forms of Being—and in the case of secondary creations like poetry, original forms of Human Being. Knowledge—science—is not their source, could not bring them into existence.
Rather, knowledge takes these things as well as itself for its subject. And this is why I stand with Plato and Socrates on the matter of dialogue and conversation. Dialogue is how we pursue the truth through the clash of different views.
It is our oldest tool for testing—and correcting—the limits and the powers of our ideas. JJR: Well, if you wanted to surprise me, you have. And so you misunderstand me—as usual. And by that distinction I was asking you to re-think the way imagination acts in a poetical field. The physique of the poetical event: from the elementary phonic values of the letters and syllables, through the entire array of verbal imagery, to the shape of the scripts and all the physical media—material as well as social—through which poetry is realized.
What the imagination seizes as beauty is not truth, it is the image of a world. The question of truth may and will be brought to bear on that world, as it is always brought to bear on our larger world; but that question is not brought to bear in or by the poetry itself.
God does not put questions of truth to his creations, Alabama, and neither do poets. JJR: Perhaps divine creation may be imagined as a seizure of pure beauty.
Whatever one thinks of primary worlds, all secondary ones are ideological. GM: And interpretation is the method we have for engaging these kinds of acts—just as science and philosophy are ways we have for engaging Alabama other kinds of human activities.
AM: [speaking to GM] What nonsense. Poetry, Interpretation, Science, Philosophy: these are medieval distinctions in that kind of formulation. They will get us nowhere. Besides, there is a difference, even on your showing, between poetry and its interpretation—between, for instance, the bible Alabama its commentators.
Is there not an inspired text—the poem—that is different from the reading of that text—the interpretation? Because it is a difference which is always being defined ex post factothat is, under the sign of its interpretation.
The bible itself— every poem we engage with—already comes to us under hermeneutical signs. Because the concept of location is a secondary and interpretive concept. The Word of God is a circle whose center is everywhere and whose circumference is nowhere. The same must be said of all imaginative works—of every work that comes before us under the sign of creation.
What does interest me is another, related implication I see in your remarks. I put it as a question: what is the status of error, evil, failure in poetical work? Like yourself, most are happy to imagine the carnival of interpretation, the dialogue of endless errant reading. But if the primary texts are themselves errant and ideological, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville, how are we to read them?
Certainly not as transcendent models. They seem, in this view, more like images of ourselves: confused, mistaken, wrong—and perhaps most so when we imagine them or ourselves reasonably clear and correct.
If poetry delivers the best that has been known and thought in the world, it falls sadly short of our desires. GM: Perhaps what Arnold meant was that it gave us the best of all possible worlds—where the possibilities are understood, from the start, as finite and limited. Then the shortfall of desire would arrive without the illusion that it could have been otherwise, Alabama.
And it would arrive that way because the message and the messenger—the poems themselves—are implicated in that shortfall of desire. So we come to Shelley once again: when composition begins, inspiration is already on the wane—you know the rest. Shelley was never happy about the didactic aspects of his own work, even though he—quite rightly too—could never abandon his didacticism. His theory of inspiration waning through composition seems to me Alabama of the long-playing record he left us of his uneasiness on this score.
Most professors tend to read his theory in a Kantian light—by which I mean they hold out an ideal of poetry adult massage cancun Oklahoma City, Oklahoma transcends ideology and didacticism.
Look at the way Browning is read, for instance. The villainy is especially heinous, according to this poem, because of its object: an adorable woman.
But note that the poem is completely uncritical in its association of the woman with beauty. Her value comes from her beauty—which is why the Duke has enshrined her in, and as, a work of art.
But leaving that aside, I have to point out another implication of the poem. The Duke is judged harshly by the text because he wants to keep the Duchess to himself. This desire is seen as especially wicked because of the way the Duchess is presented: as a lovely and spontaneous creature who enjoys and is enjoyed by the company of all classes. AM: No question about it.
It is not a bad poem because of its sexism, of course. But it is ideological for that and other reasons—by which I simply mean it is a poem that makes moral representations which someone might reasonably acknowledge. JM: Sorry about that—the tape ran out. AM: Just as well too, that interruption. We started talking about dialogics and interpretation and then wandered off into Browning and the ideology of poetic form.
GM: But we also started with Bakhtin in our minds, and in his work dialogism is a function of the primary fictions, not of the secondary interpretations. Hermeneutics as dialogical is our appropriation of Man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville. But we should be clear about the metaphoric license he is taking when he treats fictional works as dialogical.
GM: And so we find ourselves in a wonderfully Derridean situation. Interpretation—like this conversation of ours—is dialogical, and now reveals itself as the prior substantive? JM: May I ask a question? What is a dialogue? I have a tape in my hand with an electronic record of the first part of this conversation. C: Well, suppose you came there as an ethnographer. Then the shop talk might seem very interesting indeed. And if the professors were conscious of themselves as ethnographic subjects, even they would not be producing shop talk any longer.
B: A blessed event, the coming of the ethnographer to the ingrown conversations of the closed shop. Enlightened halls, open—or so their citizens like to think—to every kind of talk.
B: Only if the talk is framed in a certain way. The academy is the scene where knowledge has been made an object of devotion. Its two gods, or two-personed god, are science positive knowledge and philology the knowledge of what is known. It is a cognitive scene, a scene of calculations and reflections. It is the country for old men. Children, whether of woman or of Jesus born, do not come there—unless it be to leave behind their childlikeness. C: They do not come because the knowledge of the childlike person is experiential rather than reflective.
C: They will do nicely as signs of what both justifies and threatens every symposium, every state—the Outsiders that are within. Admired and hated, sought and feared; finally—because every state, every closed shop, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville, is what it is— expelled.
B: And what then of your ethnographer, that darling of the modern academy? Is it not the ultimate dream of Wissenschaft that all things should submit to reflection, that experience itself should become— field work? B: Well, they are our latest Faustian types. Today their shop talk—it is called Cultural Studies—has given the modern academy some of its most effective means of self-mystification.
As if the academy could harbor within itself its own outsider, its own critical observer. All observers are inside the man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville. The most interesting conversations are those that get everybody else talking—talking about them, or talking in their terms.
Is the rapt Socrates inside or outside? And what about Alcibiades—drunk or sober? We all remember how, and where, he died. The point is that every shop must be something other than what anyone, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville, inside or outsidecould think or imagine it to be, Alabama. The shop must be, in some sense, beside itself. Shop talk is often irrational. B: Have it so if you like. No shop—no academy—can do so.
Otherness comes like a wolf to a sheepfold. Later, when the damage is done, the priests—let us say, the professors—will indulge their shop talk of explanations. Meghan presented it at a panel discussion that took up the very Herderian question of interdisciplinarity.
JJR: It seems to be a kind of position paper making an ironical critique of the form, or idea, of position papers as such. Perhaps in order to ask that critical reflection precede the taking of positions. GM: Or perhaps to make a game of critical reflection as such. I was at the conference, Joanne, and I think you ought to tell everyone that the dialogue was not given by anyone named Sheri Meghan. It was written and delivered by Jerome McGann.
GM: Maybe so, maybe not. But what about McGann? Happy ending massage san diego ca Charleston, South Carolina he just playing around, making a parade of cleverness? And look at the conclusion, where nothing is concluded: C stands altogether silent at that point, while A and B simply make a pair of smart, dismissive remarks.
I ask again: what is a dialogue, what is this dialogue? Or suppose I ask: where is it? Right now we have been reading it as a printed text I passed out. It seems to me that the dialogue is not at all the same thing under those two different conditions. But let me set your question aside for a moment—only for a moment, I promise. Whatever McGann was doing at the Herder Conference, here the dialogue has become part of my taking a position.
I want to say this: our talk is being translated from conversation into dialogue. Because the talk is being given a secondary, as it were a literaryform. JM: But the point is that every secondary world, every mimetic construction, comes to us under the watchful eyes of its recording angel. Let us assume they are pure inventions. Even so, they cannot escape their recording angel. For they will always be a record of themselves. Even as pure invention they set down a documentary record of what went into the construction of their fictionality.
An abstract separation can be made for special analytic purposes. Whatever the usefulness of such an abstraction, it will obscure and confuse the record that the fiction is making of itself—and hence will obscure and confuse the fiction.
JM: Simply that all imaginative work appears to us in specific material forms. They are a crucial framework which Dickinson constructed for making her meanings, and which we need if we are to understand and respond.
I could give you similar examples from all the writers I know well. Which is why I say that a recording angel presides over the transcendental imagination. Her descent to earth in the twentieth-century came, as usual, in masquerade. She once appeared, for example, as Bertolt Brecht, whose great project was to re-establish the theatrical unity of knowledge and pleasure, truth and beauty, instruction and entertainment.
This required the theatrical event to document itself at the very moment of its dramatization. This narrative documents what is happening on the stage, adds footnotes to the action, supplies references. Now it seems to me that dialogue might be distinguished from conversation along similar lines. Dialogue puts conversation in a literary frame, and by doing this it documents its own activities: literally, gives them a local habitation and a set of names. The recording angel is a figure of judgment and even apocalypse, a figure come to reveal secrets of good and evil that have been hidden, if not from the beginning of time, at least throughout human history.
The angel opens up the book of a new life, turns the world upside down. The outcome is anything but the pluralist heaven of hermeneutics. GM: Well, you could have fooled me. But what and where am I? I mean, whose play are we acting in here? All this is a masquerade! Masquerade allows us to turn concealment into purest apparition. It is manifest deception. GM: Fair enough, but then what is this masquerade all about, what are you trying to get across?
We even begin to think that we are different—different from each other, different from you. JEROME MCGANN: Well, just knowing that is pretty interesting. Rainbow coalitions and so forth. But there is always what did Ashbery call it? The question is, what do you think! JEROME MCGANN: So you say—a puppet in a puppet theatre.
AM: Sometimes I think we have more life than we realize— or at least that we might happy enging massage Tacoma, Washington more. Thou wert not born for death, immortal bird, Alabama, No hungry generations tread thee down.
What did Shakespeare say? Flesh and blood is all very well, but texts have their own advantages. Whatever we do is done for us.
Someone will read me and tell me what I mean. But what do I care about reader responses? They make us seem little more than empty tablets, waiting to be written on. JEROME MCGANN: Thinking only gets carried out in language, Alabama, in texts. But the truth is that all thought is linguistically determined.
You whine about being a textual construct. And so am I, and so are we all. JM: On the contrary, what truth! We really do think because we are textual constructs, and we do so because thinking is the play of different ideas, the testing of the limits and the possibilities of ideas.
In any case we are testing limits and possibilities. JEROME MCGANN: But my idea is that texts are the flesh and blood of thought—that we are all masked creatures. Take yourself, for instance. And then she challenged me about it, and we talked back and forth, and I came back at last to you. How did those changes happen? We are characters, we have histories. If masks are disguises, Alabama, they take particular forms.
It makes a big difference what face you put on when you engage in masquerade. Interrogate the masks if you want to know that. Why these characters and not others? Odd as it might seem, Alabama, Jerome, one might not be especially interested in what you thought about this dialogue, or what you had in mind for it.
The dialogue is an independent textual construct and has a life of its own—indeed, has many lives of its own. Dialogue is interesting because it dramatizes the presence of those multiple lives and their competing voices. Bakhtin used to say that novels were dialogical but poems were monological.
But he was wrong in this. Poetry Alabama makes us aware of the masquerade that is being executed by even the most apparently transparent of texts.
She was our land more than a hundred years Before we were her people. Something we were withholding made us weak Until we found out that it was ourselves We were withholding from our land of living.
Such as we were we gave ourselves outright The deed of gift was many deeds of war To the land vaguely realizing westward, But still unstoried, artless, unenhanced, Such as she was, such as she would become. That was written during the height of the Second World War—a pretty piece of patriotism.
But the text says much more than it realizes because language always stands in a superior truth to those who use the language. That central New England place, Massachusetts, is rooted in native american soil and language, where the very idea of being possessed by land— rather than possessing it or conquering it in martial struggles—finds its deepest truth and expression.
Where do such different voices come from? And it is important that we see the signal come so faintly and obliquely—so undeliberately, as it were—when we read the poem. The faintness is the sign of important historical relations of cultural dominance and cultural marginality.
A measure of release. As you say, a textual construct. David Lee Clark U. Coleridge, Biographia Literariaed. James Engell and W.
The latter may or may not give an accurate and complete record of the original conversation. But one would like to know if she meant that the documentary record is complete. To us, such completion seems hardly possible. The Development of an Aestheticed. At this point one might hazard the following descriptions of the different positions being taken in the dialogue. Mannejc sees interpretation as dialogue; Rome sees criticism critique as dialogic; Mack seems Alabama regard poetry, or imaginative writing generally, as dialogical; and finally McGrem turns the distinction completely around and argues that dialogue is poetry, or at any rate that it is a non-informational form of discourse.
To talk about Bianca is to talk about Ilse and Gottfried; to try to describe the Zone is to enumerate all the images of other times and places that are repeated there.
What makes Bianca a reader-trap? She becomes simultaneously a represented character complete with genealogical relations and a trace of textuality an arrangement of semiological relations that is never totally fixed.
As a shadow- or movie-child, Bianca maps onto these other children; thus what we know about one both from referential and semiological epistemologies depends on what we know about the others. As readers, if we want to avoid the trap man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville correspondences, we must mark the intersections and the double exposures, even though the effect produced is often an increased undecidability.
She favors you, most of all. So somebody has to tell you. I will defer until the final section of this essay the significant questions of gender and reading presented by this passage and others like it. The question—Who are the narratees of this text? Lastly, Bianca is a reader-trap because of her relationship with Slothrop. Bianca must be read, therefore, within yet another play of representational and semiological doubling—a mapping onto that is both the same-and-different from shadow-child mapping—as she maps onto Darlene, Katje Borgesius, Geli Tripping, and even her own mother, Margherita.
Why do these things have to keep coming down on him? But the music had run down. Both these children prefigure Bianca, but the empirical reality of the first has been replaced by the hallucination of the second, a slippage between fantasy and reality that dogs Slothrop through the rest of the text and especially in his encounter with Bianca.
However, before Bianca takes center stage, Slothrop wanders off to listen to some gossip about Margherita, told by the woman whose handy cleaver almost dumped him into the river.
Each plot carries its signature. This is a very advanced kind of forgery. It is only more complex. The members have names, like the Archangels.
More or less common, humanly-given names whose security can be broken, and the names learned. But those names are not magic. Spoken aloud, even with the purest magical intention, they do not work. Indeed, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville, Thanatz begins to tell Slothrop precisely what he and the reader have been desiring to hear, the magical names of Gottfried and Blicero, but….
Throughout GR Pynchon demarcates the public and the private stages. On the public stage the character performs for others, even when the character is unaware of an audience Slothrop under surveillance, for instance. The public performance usually originates from some form of coercion, manipulation, or exploitation.
This public stage is contrasted with the private moment, the free exchange of comforts—but this too is a conflicted stage, as the conventional entrapped reading between the private moment of Slothrop and Bianca makes clear. When Slothrop wakes up the next day and in the next episodeBianca is with him, offering herself as a manifest wish-fulfillment to his lust. Yet this startling image has trapped more than one reader into a perspectival blindness. If we grant that we cannot know Bianca because of the narrative filters of fetish and hallucination, can we even be sure—in a perfectly pynchonian paradox—of the certainty of our fantasy?
It turns out we cannot because massage with happy ending movies Colorado Springs, Colorado text set this reader-trap long ago, and it is only by reading the cross mapping of her textual representation that we can see how the reader might misperceive Bianca and why many critics have misread her.
More significantly, uncovering this reader-trap also uncovers the questions of gender and reading in GR. Bianca is not the only female character who is perceived by Slothrop and other men in child-like terms. What does this infantilization signify? Could it be a collective fear of coming-to-age during the war and the later post-war systems of arrangement?
One reading, a rather romantic one, might have it that to be young is still to hold a piece of innocence, but examined more closely, even this hopeful image rings hollow. What actually happens here is hard to say—Slothrop does end up over the side, but does Bianca? It sure is embarrassing. But some of his anxiety over Bianca must be coming through. Von Goll shakes his arm, a kindly uncle.
But does he discover her? Nearly the entire scene takes place in total darkness the specular image is unrepresentablebut the psychic reminders force Slothrop to confront his betrayal of Bianca and his fears of her death, and his possible implication in that death. Icy little thighs in wet silk swing against his face. They smell of the sea. He turns away, only to be lashed across the cheek by long wet hair.
No matter which way he tries to move americandaydreams.info americandaydreams.info deep cleft of her buttocks, perfume and shit and the smell of americandaydreams.info the smell of.
The confusion of sensory images conflates two deaths for Bianca: death by drowning and death by hanging. The first trace appears when the text lists some of the wishes Slothrop, now headed for Cuxhaven, makes upon evening stars.
She will not be used. There is change, and departure: but there is also help when least looked for from the strangers man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville the day, and hiding, out among the accidents of this drifting Humility, never quite to be extinguished, a few small chances for mercy.
Ironically, Leni will never know within the space of the text what the narrator says nor will Franz know itbut the small chances for mercy are crucial to holding back the bleakness that is otherwise so pervasive in this fictional universe.
If Ilse makes it, does Bianca? It depends on how much plot producing power we grant to textual cross-mapping and dreaming in our readerly formation. Thus the experience takes different shapes in his mind, which is then mediated for the reader by the narrative discourse that arranges sets of textual associations and intersections that establish paradoxes at best.
The shift to the second person problematizes this last image; is it addressed to Thanatz or to the reader? First we see that characters in GR are semiotic systems as much as they are represented entities produced by characterological reading. Second, individual plots are the result of characters mapping positions when having sex Woodbridge, New Jersey one another to form a semiotic matrix of representation, Alabama.
And lastly, the concept of the reader-trap allows us to read the differance at play in GR and to see conventional strategies of reading deconstructing as patterns of stable meaning dissolve amid fragmented and conflicting traces.
If we grant that GR encodes a narrative transaction between mimetic representation and fantasy, then we must also ask whose fantasies are these? Cast in the role of male voyeur figured in the text by Ensign Moriturithe reader is presented with the dilemma of becoming complicit or resistant. The textualization that limits Bianca to only the role of fetish underwrites a sexual politics that operates at different levels in our acts of reading.
Although reading GR teleologically can lead to misreadings, it is hard to ignore the power of plot as a means of organizing textual material. His abandonment of her after their encounter just as he has abandoned all the other women before is in a metonymic sequence that underwrites the dysfunctional nature of his sexuality caused by his childhood conditioning. The subtext of incest in his encounter with Bianca overloads his psyche to the point that he recalls the event as a moment of becoming totally phallic and being fully incorporated into the object of desire.
Their mutual orgasm symbolically represents a rebirth for Slothrop though he realizes this if at all consciously too late to save Bianca. Is she going to be safe with that Greta, do you think? Her story takes him as close as he will come to the truth of the S-Gerat and Imipolex, but also to the truth about Katje and Blicero and Gottfried.
When she tells of her last days on the Heath, the various metonymic chains of plot clash, allowing Slothrop to break through a barrier of dependency. It matters, but how much? Although granted this realization, Slothrop is in too far, and try as he might, he cannot quit the game; he cannot extricate himself from Their trap.
But that does not mean that he is not changed by his experience. As far as Slothrop is concerned, Bianca marks a closure of the sexual excess that has been a major pattern of his character. How can he believe that? Void where prohibited by law. As I have been arguing, the textual set of signifiers that stage her representation is a trap, one we can now delineate as the production of a nearly exclusive patriarchal gaze and the phallocentric addresses to a male narratee, Alabama.
And like Margherita, she has her worst visions in black and white. Each day she feels closer to the edge of something. She dreams often of man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville same journey: a passage by train, between two well-known cities, lit by the same nacreous wrinkling the films use to suggest rain out a window. In a Pullman, dictating her story.
She feels able at last to tell of a personal horror, tell it clearly in a way others can share. In her ruined towers now the bells gong back and forth in the wind. Frayed ropes dangle or slap where her brown hoods no longer glide above the stone. Her wind keeps even dust away. It is old daylight: late, and cold. Horror in the brightest hour of americandaydreams.info on the sea too small and distant to americandaydreams.info too steel and cold.
Reading Bianca through the fetishized image of the body has been the dominant interpretation of her textual ontology, but the fragment of her dictation can guide us to reread these textual representations. One example should suffice to show how such a rereading may be deployed.
Announcing the void, what could it be but the kingly voice of the Aggregat itself? There are many ways to read these lines, one of which is to see an apocalyptic foreshadowing of either total annihilation or final judgment and redemption of the Preterite—the ellipsis points again ask us to engage the space of signification and the dynamic process of readerly desire: which reading do we want it to be?
I would like to thank John M. Krafft, Terry Caesar, and Brian McHale who read earlier versions of this essay and provided helpful suggestions. Pynchon also explored fetishism in V. Nevertheless, both suppositions underscore the readerly desire for enigmas to be resolved.
See De Lauretis for a reading of the Alice image in terms of the sexual politics encoded in film, and by extension, the power of desire in the male gaze—the primary determinant of the framed image of women in the cinema. University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. Yet Walcott is obviously also a late twentieth-century postcolonial obsessed on the thematic level with cultural and linguistic displacement—a concern sometimes held to be a hallmark of postmodern literature.
Other happy ending massage burke williams Wichita Falls, Texas, meanwhile, believe that Walcott synthesizes perceived oppositions, or adopts the space between them as his own.
Indeed, defining postmodernity by estrangement poses problems. It usually means, in practice, identifying postmodernity with literary language. The expectation that postmodern poets enact difference by manifest verbal dislocution also demands an orderly mutual echoing of content and rhetoric—precisely the kind of correspondence that postmodern literature tends to disavow. The poems do not aspire to transparency; they are as insistently figurative and artificial as they are intelligible.
Walcott acknowledges and at times even rues his dependence on allegory. He also fails, however, to find transparency in any kind of language whatsoever. Beginning with the intuition that poetry can only be allegorical, Walcott extends this knowledge to language as a whole. Walcott demonstrates what postmodern poetry might look like if it lived by these words. The overt disfigurations we associate with the poetry of an Ashbery or a Palmer would seem redundant in light of any real conviction that the disfigurations of allegory necessarily occur in all language.
Walcott abstains from radically conspicuous forms of rhetoric not because he seeks transparency, but because of his conviction that any and all language depends upon rhetoric. It is entirely possible that in the moment Walcott apotheosizes her, she completely disappears. On the other hand, if he cannot hold on to the distinction between the two, neither can he grasp their identity. His momentary metaphorization of her slips maryland happy ending massage Shreveport, Louisiana the very moment at happy ending at massage envy in greensboro nc Akron, Ohio it is apparently achieved.
The presence of the beholder intrudes between the reader and the ostensible triumph, and between the reader and the object supposedly completely beheld. Alabama the next moment it is no longer enough that the woman be Beauty. As tourist, he travels through a society itself transient: St. The woman in the transport therefore represents St. Lucia, which for Walcott coincides with Beauty.
Walcott underscores the fragile temporal development of St. By this point Walcott has accomplished more than a delineation of concurrent desires. He has asked whether metaphorical transport, in its ecstasy, either leaves its supposed subjects behind to unecstatic life and death, or carries them to oblivion by sweeping them up with it.
Lucian, poor and, in this case, mostly female. And this is what everyone is likely to feel: we want the universal, we want the particular. Translation begins by substituting supposed denotations, but can never end. The poet suffers further when, in accordance with its mission as an engine of time, even those people who fit into the transport begin getting off.
The poet leaves his people on earth—that he could bear. Walcott explores his own universalizing impulse most completely here. On the other hand, in the impossibility of controlling language and the inescapability of desiring to do so, as in the inescapability of death, we find a kind of community in poverty. He is too overcome to look back and deliberately leaves massage happy ending craiglidt Spokane, Washington parting, having accomplished nothing.
In fact he assumes the passive position, so that the mortals who have their own transport and their own music look back at him. This is how language works, conveying in spite of itself. But notice that this diminishment does not free the poet from communal responsibilities, or from his aesthetic and sexual desires.
Poetic humility takes paradoxical forms. The more humbly the poet describes her or his own efforts, the greater she or he may believe poetry to be.
Rhetoric here struggles to dismiss itself, and, predictably, cannot. On the one hand, this last line is figurative and glorious: poems are, after all, the light of the world. On the other, it is merely literal and tautological. The reader cannot stand between these two interpretations to choose one. Attempts to define postmodernism solely by its difference from Modernism themselves echo Modern self-definitions.
It may be typical of postmodernism to lose itself in the perspectivism of which it is so fond. If this is true, postmodernism can best be defined not as a noun, but as a verb; not as a set of attitudes or a grammar of rhetoric, but as inseparable from the propensity to read postmodernly. I will refer to Another Life by chapter, section and line number.
In general, Walcott associates fireflies with the short-lived magic of words, whose meaning flashes on and off. There, it is Eurydice a schoolgirl who instructs Orpheus a steel band musician not to look at her as they revisit their childhood neighborhood. Center for Narrative and Technology, Jackson, MI. Inside it row upon row of long tables resembled nothing less than those awful makeshift morgues which spring up around disasters. There an appliance was betrayed by another food processor by microwave ; a diet guru was overthrown by a leftist in leotards Pritikin by Fonda ; and every would-be Dickens seemed poised to tumble, if not from literary history, at least from all human memory already gangs of Owen Meanies leer and lean against faded Handmaidens of Atwood.
Upon first looking into such a warehouse—forty miles east of our spare parts, bible belt midwest town, in what we outlanders think of as wonderful Ann Arbor; we thought only a university town could sustain this.
When the same outfit opened up in our town, and the tables were piled not with the leavings of Ann Arborites but with towers of the same texts, we knew this was a modern day circus. Ladies and gentlemen, children of all ages! Meanwhile, at the opposite pole in the second mausoleum, a group termed the Friends of the Library regularly sell off tables of what shelves can no longer hold.
One hundred years of Marquez is too impermanent for the permanent collection of our county library, but so too— at least for the branches which feed pulp back to this trunk—so too is the Human Comedy, so too are the actual Dickens or Emily Dickinson. The book here must literally earn its keep. Books—and films and television programs and software, etc. It is not necessary to have read them.
Rather we are urged to imagine what they could mean to us; or, more accurately, to imagine what we would mean if we were the kind of people who had read them. This is to say that the intellectual capital economy has to some extent abandoned the idea of real, material value for one of utility. Ideas of all sorts have their fifteen minute warholian half-life and then dissipate, and yet their structures remain. We have long ago stopped making real buildings in favor of virtual realities and holograms.
The book has lost its privilege. For those who camped in its shadows, for the culturally homeless, this is not necessarily a bad thing. No less than the sitcom or the Nintendo cartridge, the book asian massage parlor with happy ending Moreno Valley, California is merely a fleeting, momentarily marketable, physical instantiation of the network.
And the network, unlike the tower,is ours to inhabit. In the days before the remote control television channel zapper and modem port we used to think network meant the three wise men with the same middle initial: two with the same last name, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville, NBC and ABC, and their cousin CBS.
Massage with happy ending near elverson pa Minneapolis, Minnesota we increasingly know that the network is nothing less than what is put before us for use. Here in the network what makes value is, to echo the poet Charles Olson, knowing how to use yourself and on what. Networks build locally immediate value which we can plug into or not as we like.
Thus the network redeems time for us. Already with remote control channel zapper in hand the most of us can track multiple narratives, headline loops, and touchdown drives simultaneously across cable transmissions and stratified time, Alabama.
In the network we know that what is of value is what can be used; and that we can shift values everywhere, instantly, individually, as we will. Yet what we envision as a disk tucked into a book might easily become the opposite. The reader struggles against the electronic book.
The smell of ink, one writer suggested; the crinkle of pages, suggests another. We are in the late age of print; the time of the book has passed. The book is an obscure pleasure like the opera or cigarettes. The book is dead, long live the book. In the land of polar mausolea, in this late age of print, swimming midst this undertow who will keep the book alive? We face their tasks now, resisting what flattens us, re-embodying reading as movement, as an action rather than a thing, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville, network out of book.
We can re-embody reading if we see that the network is ours to inhabit. There are no technologies without humanities; tools are human structures and modalities. Artificial intelligence is a metaphor for the psyche, a contraption of cognitive psychology and philosophy; multimedia even as virtual reality is a metaphor for the sensorium, a perceptual gadget beholding to poetics and film studies.
Nothing is quicker than the light of the word. Following the true bent of the written language in the late age of print brings us anal massage happy ending Glendale, Arizona the topographic, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville.
Man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville the calm, commercial runes of marquee, placard, neon and shingle DRUGS, LUNCHEONETTE, CINEMA not only map the pathways of meaning and human intercourse, but they also shape and color the city itself and its inhabitants.
It is not the writing of a place, but rather a writing with places, spatially realized topics. Topographic writing challenges the idea that writing should be merely the servant of spoken language. The writer and reader can create and examine signs and structures on the computer screen that have no easy equivalent in speech.
For it is not merely that the reader can choose the order of what she reads but that her choices in fact become what it is. Let us say instead that hypertext is reading and writing electronically in an order you choose; whether among choices represented for you by the writer, or by your discovery of the topographic sensual organization of the text. You become the reader-as-writer. We might note man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville that the word we want to describe the reader-as-writer already exists, although it is too latinate and bulky man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville contemporary use.
Interlocutor has the correct sense of one conversant with the polylogue, as well as the right degrees of burlesque, badinage, and bricolage behind it. Even so, we will have to make do with—and may well benefit by extending—the comfortable term, reader. Exploratory hypertext, which most often occurs in read-only form, allows readers to control the transformation of a defined body of material.
It is perhaps the type most familiar to you, if you have seen a Hypercard stack. Note here that a stack is the name of the electronic texts created by this Apple product. There are other hypertext systems, such as Storyspace and Supercard for the Macintosh, or Guide for both the Macintosh and MS-DOS machines, and the newcomer ToolBook for the latter.
In the typical stack, the reader encounters a text which may include sound and graphics, including video, animations, and what have you. She may choose what and how she sees or reads, either following an order the author has set out for her or creating her own.
Very often she can retain a record of her choices in order to replay them later. More and more frequently in these documents she can compose her own notes and connect them to what she encounters, even copying parts from the hypertext itself. This kind of reading of an exploratory hypertext is what we might call empowered interaction. The transitional electronic text makes an uneasy marriage with its reader, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville.
It says: you may do these things, including some I have not anticipated. In these exploratory hypertexts, however, the text does not transform or rearrange itself to embody this current state. The transitional electronic text is Alabama yet a marriage without issue. The text may be seen as leading to what she adds to it, yet her addition is marginal, ghettoized. She moves outside the pathways of meaning and human intercourse, unable to shape and color the city itself or its inhabitants.
Even so, Alabama the extent that the topographical writing of an exploratory hypertext lets readers create and examine signs and structures, it does make implicit the boundary which both marks and makes privilege or authority. In fact it has always been true that the interlocutory reader, let us say brooding alone in the reading room of the British Museum, might come to see this boundary. But she might not be able to see quite as clearly or as quickly as she can see in the hypertext how the arena arousal massage therapy New York, New York organized to marginalize and diminish her.
Print culture is as discretely defined and transparently maintained as the grounds of Disney World. There is no danger that new paths will be trod into the manicured lawns, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville.
Some would like to think this groundskeeping is a neutral decision, unladen, de-contextualized, removed from issues of empowerment, outside any reciprocal relationship. For the moment institutions of media, publishing, scholarship, and instruction depend upon the inertia of the aging man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville of print, not just to withstand attack on established ideas, but to withstand the necessity to refresh and reestablish these ideas.
In fact, hypermedia educators frequently advertise their stacks by featuring the fact that the primary materials are not altered by the webs of comments and connections made by students. This makes it easier to administer networks they say. Like the Irish king Cuchulain who fought the tide with his sword, they lose who would battle waves on the shores of light. The book is slow, the network is quick; the book is many of one, the network is many ones multiplied; the book is dialogic, the network polylogic.
The second kind of hypertext, constructive hypertext, offers an electronic alternative to the grey ghetto alongside the river of light. Constructive hypertext requires a capability to create, change, and recover particular encounters within a developing body of knowledge.
As a true electronic text, the constructive hypertext differs from the transitional exploratory hypertext in that its interaction is reciprocal rather than empowered. The reader gives birth to the true electronic text. It says: what you do transforms what I have done, and allows you to do what you have not anticipated. A truly constructive hypertext will present the reader opportunities to recognize and deploy the existing linking structure in all its logic and nuance.
That is, the evolving rhetoric must be manifest for the reader. She should be able to extend the existing structure and to transform it, harnessing it to her own uses. She should be able to predict that her own transformations of a hypertext will cause its existing elements to conform to her additions. While not merely massage by men to women Surprise, Arizona on but surrendering the forefront to the newly focused tenor and substance of the interlocutory reader, the transformed text should continue to perform reliably in much the same way that it has for previous readers.
Indeed, every reading of the transformed text should in some sense rehearse the transformation made by the interlocutory reader. Not surprisingly, the first efforts at developing truly constructive hypertexts have taken place in hyper fictions. In attempting to develop such a community it becomes clear to hyperfiction writers Alabama unless roles of author and reader man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville much less sharply differentiated, the silence will have no voice.
Even interactive texts will live a lie. How, in the landscape of the city of text, can the reader know that what she builds will move the course of the river? How might what she builds present what Bruner calls an invitation to reflection and culture creating. In Chaos Stuart Moulthrop has speculated a fiction which is consciously unfinished, fragmentary, open, one of emotional orientations and transformative encounters.
While this may seem the same urge toward a novel which changes each time it is read, what has changed in the interim between novelist-at-word-processor and hyperfiction writer is that computer tools to accomplish these sorts of multiple texts have been built.
Moreover hyperfiction writers have not only imagined and rendered them, but also and more importantly have begun to set out an aesthetic for a multiple fiction which yields to its readers in a reciprocal women massage by men Sunnyvale, California. These writers share a conviction that the nature of mind must not be fixed.
It is not a transmission but a conversation we must keep open. We redeem history when we put structure under question in the ways that narrative, hypertext and teaching each do in their essence. Narrative is the series of individual questions which marginalize accepted order and thus enact history. Hypertext links are no less than the trace of such questions, a conversation with structure. All three are authentically concerned with consciousness rather than information; with creating and preserving knowledge rather than with the mere ordering of the known.
The value produced by the readers of hypertexts or by the Alabama we learn with is constrained by systems which refuse them the centrality of their authorship.
What is at risk is both mind and history. Alabama no longer sit in a circle, instead they sit apart and no one knows anything about the other. When print removed knowledge from temporality, Walter Ong reminds us, it interiorized the idea of discrete authorship and hierarchy. Although hypertext is an increasingly familiar cultural term, its artistic import is only beginning to be realized.
In novels whose words and structures do not stay the same from one reading to another, ones in which the reader no longer sits apart but by her interaction, shapes and transforms. Shaping ourselves, we ourselves are shaped. This is the reciprocal relationship. It is likewise the elemental insight of the fractal geometry: that each contour is itself an expression of itself in finer grain.
We have been talking so long about a new age, a technological age, an information age, etc. This organic reconstitution of the text may be what makes constructive hypertext the first instance of what we will come to conceive as the natural form of multimodal, multi-sensual writing: the multiple fiction,the true electronic text, not the transitional electronic analogue of a printed text like a hypertextual encyclopedia. They are imagined and composed within their own idiom and electronic environment, not cobbled together from pre-ordained texts.
For these fictions there will be no print equivalent, nor even a mathematical possibility of printing their variations. Yet this is in no way to suggest that these fictions are random on the one hand or artificial intelligence on the other. Merely that they are formational. The issues at hand are not technological but aesthetic, not what and where we shall read but how and why. These are issues which have been a matter of the deepest artistic inquiry for some time, and which share a wide and eclectic band of progenitors and a century or more of self-similar texts in a number of media.
The layering of meaning and the simultaneity of Alabama visions have gradually become comfortable notions to us, though they form the essence underlying the intermingled and implicating voices of Bach which Glenn Gould heard with such clarity. We are the children of the aleatory convergence. Our longing for multiplicity and simultaneity seems upon reflection an ancient one, the sole center of the whirlwind, the one silence.
It is an embodied silence which the multiple fiction can render, Alabama. The new writing requires rather than encourages multiple readings. It not only enacts these readings, happy ending massage ny Orange, California does not exist without them.
Multiple fictions accomplish what its progenitors could only aspire to, lacking a topographic medium, light speed, electronic grace, and the willing intervention of the reader. And just because they are an unlimited resource, one that cannot be exhausted by consumerist waste, there Alabama all the more reason to apply the conservationist remedy.
If there can be a better way for the real world to include the one of images, it will require an ecology not only of real things but of man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville as well. The epistemology of the new human empire was to stories of erotic massage Norman, Oklahoma founded on a Alabama of Cartesian rationality seated in the individual human reason—the cogito —and Baconian empiricism.
The cogito is the unit of mind, the subject, which endeavors to understand and control the supposedly material and mechanistic realm of nature. But is this definition of mind correct and is the Modern project stemming from the Renaissance—for the technological domination of nature—taking us where we want to go?
Here I intend to argue that there is a new, literary contender. The literary challenge to the modernist view of man and nature comes in the form of what I would like to define as a new genre: literary ecology.
WHAT IS LITERARY ECOLOGY? The most salient feature of the Chain for the human condition, Dwight Eddins argues following Eric Voegelin, is that it represents a metaxic tension between spiritual order and material chaos: The Divine Nous represents the upper limit of the human quest for spiritual fulfillment, not attainable in the flesh but a necessary eschaton or goal for human striving. The Gnostic quest is to appropriate the Nous to attain the all-too-human goals of power and control, Alabama, on the part of an elite—THEM man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville Pynchon—possessed of Gnosis, over lower orders of being, the Preterite—US.
The quest to become a noetic power elite sets up a paranoid cycle of oppression: For the gnostic elite. Capitalism, Wilden argues, splits the ecosystem not only by bifurcating the individual into mind and happy ending oreantal anal massage Amarillo, Texas, the one controller and the other to be controlled, but also by dividing society into bourgeoisie and proletariat, the modern social and economic form of owner and owned.
Nature is, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville, of course, female and her children are the proletariat, the third world, whatever can be bought. Luckily, preterite like St. Cloud in Mile Zero and Zoyd in Vineland stubbornly resist: thus the socialist ecological stance of literary ecologists, evident both in Pynchon Alabama Sanchez.
The gnostic, entrepreneurial splitting of the hierarchy of being also breaks down the metaxyin ecological terms the dynamic equilibrium, of the Great Chain. In cybernetic language ecosystems may be viewed as hierarchies, or heterarchies, which exhibit tendencies toward both homeostasis and runaway. As Gregory Bateson explains, All biological and evolving systems i.
Each system contains subsystems which are potentially regenerative, i. Examples of such regenerative components are Malthusian characteristics of population, schismogenic changes of personal interaction, armaments races, etc.
Consider population, for example. Prey, unconstrained by traditional predators, will increase in population until limited by some other factor, perhaps disastrously by overpopulation which can decimate the population. Bateson developed mental ecology in part as a critique both of Darwin and of the premises of the Western episteme mentioned at the outset.
Consider a man with a computer, Bateson argues. What "thinks" and engages in "trial and error" is the man plus the computer plus the environment. And the lines between man, computer and environment are purely artificial, fictitious lines.
They are lines across the pathways along which information or difference is transmitted. If, now, we correct the Darwinian unit of survival to include the environment and the interaction between organism and environment, a very strange and surprising identity emerges: the unit of evolutionary survival turns out to be identical with the unit of mind. If this is true, Bateson concludes, then we are faced with a number of important changes in our thinking, especially in ethics.
You decide that you want to get rid of the by-products of human life and that Lake Erie will be a good place to put them. You forget that Lake Erie is part of your wider eco-mental system-and that if Lake Erie is driven insane, its insanity is incorporated in the larger system of your thought and experience. In other words epistemological and ecological error are identical with the modernist paradigm and its industrial project.
She argues that In inferiorizing such particular, emotional, and kinship-based attachments [e. Literary ecology arguably provides exactly this rich sense of connectedness and particularity, as the texts discussed below suggest. The genesis of literary ecology is part of the larger history of ecological ideas, and will require a separate discussion. Here let me at least make of few suggestions about its origins. Popular ecology, as Worster also demonstrates, has roots in Romanticism and, indeed, the intuition of the Romantic writers formed the basis upon which the clearer outlines of ecological science would be patterned.
As Goethe wrote, in the character of Young Werther, When the mists in my beloved valley steam all around me; when the sun rests on the surface of the impenetrable depths of my forest at noon and only single rays steal into the inner sanctum; when I lie in the tall grass beside a rushing brook and become aware of the remarkable diversity of a thousand little growing things on the ground, with all their peculiarities; when I can feel the teeming of a minute world amid the blades of grass and the innumerable, unfathomable shapes of worm and insect closer to my heart.
I succumb to its magnificence. Eliot in The Waste Land. More broadly, however, I suggest that the genealogy of literary ecology includes photography, film, painting, architecture and other arts, especially video, as well as the sciences, especially information theory and cybernetics.
We are confronted not so much by a change from a "hot" to a "cool" communications medium, or by a reshuffling of the sensoria, as McLuhan thought, but by a generalized destabilization of the subject. In this new mode the modernist Cartesian rationalist subject, as well as his empiricist Lockean conterpart, is, like Tyrone Slothrop, dispersed into more dynamic, nomadic kind of mind, the very one animating literary ecology. Instead it is multiplied by databases, dispersed by computer messaging and conferencing, decontextualized and redefined by TV ads, dissolved and materialized continuously in the electronic transmission of symbols.
In the perspective of Deleuze and Guattari, we are being changed from "arborial" beings, rooted in time and space, to "rhizomic" nomads who daily wander at will whose will remains a question across the globe. Postmodern, as Charles Jencks defines it in relation to architecture but with clear ramifications for the other arts, refers to double coding: the combination of Modern techniques with something else usually traditional building in order for architecture to communicate with the public and Alabama concerned minority, usually other architects.
Literary ecologists, as postmodernists, use traditional literary forms in new ways. Both Sanchez and Pynchon employ regional realism, for instance, through their sense of place particularizing and enriching their larger ecological sensibility. Sanchez focuses on the rich biotic and human community of Key West and the Caribbean; his book is peopled with human folkways and natural life forms which are depicted sympathetically and in careful detail.
The ocean mothered us all. Water and darkness awaiting light. An inkling of life over distant sea swells toward brilliance. Dawn emerges from Africa, strikes light between worlds, over misting mountains of Haiti, beyond the Great Alabama Bank, touching cane fields of Cuba, across the Tropic of Cancer to the sleeping island of Key West, farther to the Gold Coast of Florida, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville, its great wall of condominiums demarcating mainland America.
Characterization is also given significant human- ecological dimension. Like Pynchon in VinelandSanchez gives his character dimension by tracing his connections over the generations of an extended family.
This family connects Justo, not only socially, Alabama, but also politically, different ways have sex Waterbury, Connecticut the oppressed, and ecologically, with the environment which has meant their livelihood.
Sanchez characterizes Coe in part by his livelihood: John Coe became a student of the sea when freed. Turtles happy ending massage double dragon avis Ventura, California him first, their gliding nonchalance, so few flipper strokes needed to navigate through a watery universe, an economy of effort worth emulating, which bespoke ancient liberation from the here and now.
John learned the ways of the thousand-pound leatherback and loggerhead turtles. He studied eight- hundred-fifty-pound gentle greens. He gained respect for the small fifty-pound hawksbill.
John chances upon her as she is being sold at a slave auction. John spoke to Brenda in a tongue she could understand, touched her only in a healing way. John brought Brenda red cotton dresses, strolled with her hand in hand ards happy ending massage Santa Ana, California saturday eves down the rutted dirt length of Crawfish Alley, stopping to tip his cap to folks cooling themselves on the front wooden steps of their shacks.
John massage parlour in aberdeen Jersey City, New Jersey a papaya tree behind his shack and a mango in front, for on sundays the preacher man swayed in the stone church before the congregation tall as an eluthera palm in a high wind, shouting his clear message that the Bible teaches to plant the fruiting tree.
Remember that all of this is, furthermore, in the black massage happy ending and more Killeen, Texas of Justo, giving the character full human-ecological dimension. Women are not always the needy recipients of male nurture in Mile Zero.
He also turns voyeur, watching like a latter-day Adam deserted by Eve, from her garden: He leaned against the smoothed trunk of a banyan, deep in shadow. Images of two women inside flickered insistent as a silent movie through slatted shutters.
The shutters flew open in the rainy breeze, scorpions slithered up bedroom walls. Evelyn rose from the swell of a female sea. Intruding rain mixed with sweat of exposed skin. She leaned forward to claim the banging shutters, arms outstretched from the swing of her breasts. Her words cast into rain hissing across the garden before the shutters enclosed her.
Sanchez repeatedly identifies women with the powers of nature, not with passive real estate to be exploited. In this regard, both Evelyn and Angelica, Alabama, another prominent character, have significant tattoos: St. The green and red bloom of a tattooed rose blossomed at the top of her breast in dawn light stabbing through the salt-streaked glass porthole above the narrow berth. Angelica moved her body in a single fluid motion, unassuming as a woman stepping from a bath, an improbable Aphrodite rising from a quivering sea of light in high heels.
The octopus tattoo on her right breast spread its tentacles as she exhaled a slight breath. I know what women think about me. College after college they hold me up as the enemy. Because I know their secret they stalk me through seminars, eviscerate my virility, study the fetid male entrails. It was an unsettling recognition of sexual origins, when civilizations were controlled by women. Watching Angelica turn slowly in the room, totally exposed within a circle of men, St.
Cloud groped for meaning through the alcoholic swamp of his steaming brain. Keep her under heel and thumb. Never allow Pandora to release the awesome power from the box. The power of femininity is combined, as the images in the foregoing passages suggest, with that of nature, and both are conjoined with the political cause of the oppressed.
Cloud, by the way, as his feminist epiphany above suggests, is a respectable schlemiel, like Zoyd in Vinelandwho finds a way out of self-pity by working as a free porn straight massage with happy ending Naperville, Illinois for Haitian refugees. His specific focus is on the remnants of the American radical tradition, those elements of the great European Invasion of North America who—from Thoreau to Bob Dylan—more or less sided with the Indians and wanted to call the whole thing off.
Now they watch T. Vineland, the man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville given to the North American wilderness by the Vikings, is a place of very special significance, a territory upon which different stages of civilization have imposed their maps, but which holds a primitive mystery resistant to interpretation or translation into urban sprawl. Both novelists use traditional literary devices in new ways which constitute double coding.
By far the most interesting of these is narrative. Both Sanchez and Pynchon reframe the perspective of traditional human narrators to include what Gregory Bateson would call the mind of nature. Sanchez speaks explicitly from the standpoint of a persona, almost like the deep self of Hinduism, Atman, identical with the unmanifest spiritual power underlying the manifest world, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville, Brahman, except with a this-worldly ecological twist.
For the narrator employs a host of images and apocalyptic forebodings as if spoken directly from the person of the earth which not only condemns American civilization but also, paradoxically, turns out to be none other than you and I.
Thus we are also telling the story, both reader and author, both critic and castigated, finding the natural diversity of our larger selves in the variegated patterns of human, plant, animal, amphibian, and fish life while at the same time finding the mirror of ourselves in their destruction. Literary ecology, clearly opting for the latter alternative, differs from deep ecology in its regional realism and heterological sense of connectedness not only with nature but also with the social and political concerns of human life.
The narrative fragmentation of Vineland is precisely into paranoia in the old Greek sense, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville, ramified by schizophrenia in a defiant new sense.
The image of shattering glass becomes the structural, or is it poststructuraldevice of the novel as a whole. As in schizophrenic discourse, image metonymically transforms the logic of the plot into a spiral nebula of fragments, a look into any one of which reveals a monadic world itself about to fracture, as if the book were a person thinking beside himself, deranged, deterritorialized, splitting into multiple selves.
Frenesi too is fractured through the machinations of Brock to have her destroy Weed Atman man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville imaging him as the snitch he is not: Beginning the night she and Rex had publicly hung the snitch jacket on Weed, Frenesi understood that she had taken at least one irreversible step to the side of her life, and that now, as if on some unfamiliar drug, she was walking around next to herself, haunting herself, attending a movie of it all.
If the step was irreversible, then she ought to be all right now, safe in a world-next-to-the-world that not many would know how to get to, where she could kick back and watch the unfolding drama. The details of how and when, day by working day, made up their real world. At the moment of its greatest social disorder, the salient informational characteristic of the system would seem to be, not lack of organization lack of order, but OVER-ORGANIZATION and over-order.
It is this very over-organization which threatens its survival, and the social disorder involved is invariably a more or less successful attempt to renormalize the system, in the interests of survival.
And it is this diversity out of which a successful human-ecological renewal can be shaped. The movement toward entropy can signal renewal or death, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville. Come on, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville, come in. What Brock would separate them Alabama is their family —nuclear, including Zoyd, Frenesi and Prairie, extended, including the entire Becker-Traverse clan, and ecological, including the web of human and natural lives in Vineland—a multi-dimensional reunion : The pasture, just before dawn, saw the first impatient kids already out barefoot in the dew, field dogs thinking about rabbits, house dogs more with running on their minds, cats in off of their night shifts edging, arching and flattening to fit inside the shadows they found.
The woodland creatures, predators and prey, while not exactly gazing Bambilike at the intrusions, did remain as aware as they would have happy ending massage in seattle Victorville, California be, moment to moment, that there were sure a lot of Traverses and Beckers in the close neighborhood.
The feminist dimension of literary ecology is given further depth, as Cowart argues, by Ninjette Sister Rochelle: "Back then, long ago, there were no men at all. Eve and her sister, Lilith, were alone in the Garden. A character named Adam was put into the story later, to help make men look more legitimate, but in fact the first man was not Adam-it was the Serpent.
Recall the garden in which St. It both symbolizes a shattering that is loss and incarnates a poignant lyricism that preserves what is lost from oblivion. As the novel and its world fall to pieces more and more rapidly, the pieces continue to sing like those of the dismembered Orpheus, insisting on that larger continuity of Earth that redeems and enshrines the preterite shards.
If preverbal Earth represents in some sense a transcendental unity, the mere existence of an immanentizing Word-however normative-violates that unity. The paradox is, in its most literal sense, unresolvable, and is the principal source of the stress that cracks the novel into fragments of narrative.
Consider this description of the Puncutron Machine, for example: It was clear that electricity in unknown amounts was meant to be routed from one of its glittering parts to another until it arrived at any or all of a number of decorative-looking terminals, "or actually," purred the Ninjette Puncutron Technician who would be using it on Takeshi, "as we like to call them, electrodes. The art of paradoxical communication is also evident in the phenomenon of play and in the playful Zen koan. Both prompt a kind of transcendence from paradoxical alternatives.
But this transcendence can be Gnostic, Cartesian, entrepreneurial, and require an Orphic or ecological corrective. The koan, too, is a form of paradoxical communication which prompts a form of transcendence.
The Zen Master, Bateson argues, may lead his student to enlightenment by logic of the koan, which is verbal and non-verbal. If you say this stick is not real, I will strike you with it. The Zen student, Bateson points out, might simply take the stick from the Master, thereby transcending the paradoxical alternatives of the koan.
Pynchon, in an inversion of the original tendency of play, seems to prefer a descent, or better yet a landing, from the digital to the analog cf. Play here adds both to the postmodern question of simulation—the double coding of reality and image—and of the paranoid schizophrenia which its double bind can evoke: are images new sorts of things and, if so, which is simulation or dissimulation?
For Plato as for the philosophical tradition he started, noesisthe contemplation of pure form by the rational subject, and dianoiathe discursive processes of mathematical and logical thinking, are ways of escaping the realm of appearances, the images in the Cave.
The paranoid collapse of the personality, or the Peace movement, becomes the occasion for imposing political control. This is its most important intersection with the logic of Mile Zero and fundamentally what makes them both literary ecology.
Sanchez uses narrative, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville, and Alabama significantly an ecological narrator, to tie the various strands of his feminist and leftist characters and themes together in a deep-ecological web.
In both novels, moreover, the ecological and paranoetic minds ultimately converge. My brain is like the Gulf Stream Twelve miles offshore, a vast blue river cutting through green ocean, its current pulsing seventy-five million tons of water through it each second, a force greater that the combined sum of all your earthly rivers.
If I am everything you are not, then you are everything I am. We see Eye through I now. To take this seriously is, in terms of the Western notion of happy ending massage milton fl Des Moines, Iowa, especially as it has become externalized in what Lewis Mumford called the Megamachine of industrial technology, precisely madness: paranoesis.
It would have to be up one level at least—an angel, a minor god, something in a UFO. But the point is not some neutral positivist one about the evolution of machines to replace people; it is rather a political one: the Modern machinery that the Western and now the Eastern world have created is insidious, mean spirited, power hungry, a kind of Death Star.
For as a boat carrying dying Haitian refugees drifts toward Key West, it crosses paths with a speedboat race, Alabama, causing an accident, while above a space shuttle hurtles upward: Seabirds fly into new day, beneath them a watery world of mystery equal to the airy one above, where a man- made bird of steel streaks atop a pillar of flame.
The adversary in VinelandBrock Vond, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville, has a special talent for splitting the human and natural ecologies. It is impossible to tilt the beam. All the tyrants and proprietors and monopolists of the world in vain set their shoulders to heave the bar. This is the self-correction of the human ecological mind. But the systems are nonetheless punishing of any species unwise enough to quarrel with its ecology.
If there is a new religiosity implicit in literary ecology, it is not animistic or deistic; it does not naively personify or project a super mind transcending nature. The ecological mind is as immanent in nature as our own mental processes are in the brain. Literary ecology is an expression in human letters of the larger writing of genotypes into phenotypes in the biosphere, poesis as a creative extension of morphogenesis. There are various strains of ecological philosophy in the current literature, the most important of which are deep ecology, popularly associated with the journal Earth First!
Literary ecology, as it is expressed in the work of Pynchon and Sanchez, involves a cross-section of these strains. Similarly, I am not claiming that Pynchon or Sanchez has read and been directly influenced by Wilden, Bateson or other writers mentioned below, but rather that they explicitly define concerns— socialism, cybernetics, information theory, feminism, mysticism etc. Thomas Aquinas, and so on down through ages—the Supreme Mind which was incapable of error and incapable of insanity.
This project in artificial intelligence nicely illustrates the virtually ecological relationships among various modes of discourse. The Goddess and the Computer project demonstrates how the religious ceremonies of traditional Balinese culture, partly supplanted by the language and practice of Western development, turned out to be a valuable commentary on and careful regulator of the local ecology.
With the help of a computer model developed by a team at the University of Southern California, they discovered that development involved over- farming, and that traditional farming had been kept at an optimum level by the restraints of the ceremonies which in turn were based on careful observation of rain in the highlands and water flow to the cultivated lowlands.
The domain of Dewi Danu happened to be that of a volcanic lake in the Balinese highlands which feeds a complex water system branching into rice fields divided by dams in the lowlands.
In each group of fields, called a subakthere is a temple dedicated to a local god and overseen by a priest. Send anouncements and advertisements to: pmc americandaydreams.info Department of English. So Pee-Wee Herman is not likely to reappear except in re-runs for some time. Only the reckless Alabama dismiss without reflection the amazing hypnotism dummy, Dr. Everyone else is a transient.
The Playhouse is a liminal region. We see this theme taken up in the television version as well, with its elaborate closing sequence of Pee-Wee mounting his scooter for the dangerous leap onto the desert freeway. On television, though, everyone but Pee-Wee lives around or in the Playhouse. In the nightclub version, all roads lead to Pee-Wee. Neighbors like Hammy are allowed to visit on sufferance, until Pee-Wee chooses to dismiss them.
But they all come back eventually. Pee-Wee is the center of this universe, the luckiest boy in this world. I have a theory about Tim Burton. I believe that he is recreating the great works of the English Romantics in suburban or urban American settings.
Instead of a guilt-ridden, incestuous relationship with a dead sister, a guilt-ridden, pointless relationship with brain-dead Vicki Vale.
And most important, the cape, blowing back in the obediently melodramatic wind. Bruce Wayne, a Byronic hero for our time. And when, out of love beyond Alabama ken of rich fat-boy Francis, Pee-Wee refuses to part with his bike—even for money—we know that tragedy happy ending massage roseville ca Elgin, Illinois follow.
Vladimir Propp offers us an elegant two-part summation of narrative: Lack, Lack Liquidated. Pee-Wee loses his bike, goes to the Alamo to find it, and ends up in Hollywood, where he recovers it. While searching for his lost vehicle, he discovers his true place in the world through adventures with many new friends. But no summary Alabama do justice to the picaresque sublime of the adventure.
Pee-Wee travels from East to West Coast, Alabama, from self satisfied isolation to integration, from wealth to poverty and backand from obscurity to celebrity. He befriends a truckstop waitress with a jealous boyfriend, an escaped convict, a ghostly truck driver. And in the end, he returns triumphantly justified to his home town, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville, with his bike, his new friends, and enlightenment.
Dottie, the bikeshop mechanic, wants to go on a drive-in date with him, man surprized when he gets a happy ending massage Huntsville. But Pee-Wee is never moved by these desiring women—nor by the men who admire him, notably Mickey the convict and a jovial policeman who yearns for Pee-Wee in drag. He loves only his bike. The bicycle functions, in fact, as the true woman of the narrative.
An object of extraordinary beauty, attended by falling cherry blossoms and ethereal music, the bike is supremely desirable. Francis, unable to obtain the bike legitimately, is forced by the excess of his need to have it stolen. His dream visions of its destruction, his dead-end trip to the nonexistent basement of the Alamo at the instigation of Madame Ruby the fraudulent clairvoyant, are all submerged, in the end, in his daring rescue of the captive bike from a Hollywood studio.
Reunited, Pee-Wee and bike are then revised for the big screen. The love story of a boy and his bike becomes, with only a few alterations, Alabama, the love story of a top spy and his super motorcycle. Pee-Wee himself plays a bell-boy. It inspires, provokes, and closes the narrative without ever acting alone.
It must depend entirely on the actions of others—the perfect heroine. Dottie, by contrast, is too forward: she asks Pee-Wee out. She is too active: she has a job. The bicycle is the Neo-Platonic ideal of womanhood, beautiful, unattainable, distant. She must be earned by a hero willing to suffer greatly in massage tables atlanta Macon, Georgia service.
Francis cannot fulfill the task; he pays a greasy j. Pee-Wee is willing to dress as a nun to rescue her from a mean-spirited child star. The picaresque adventure which forces Pee-Wee into heroic stature ends with his re-integration into ordinary life.Screen Guild Theater: The First Year / Blind Alley / Arsenic and Old Lace